garden design

Looking through the hedge at the colourful garden

Cottage garden ideas from the Cotswolds

Cottage garden ideas can be found in many of the gardens open to the public. These include Open Garden Scheme Gardens and the many home gardens worldwide. One great source of cottage garden ideas is the National Trust of Great Britain.

The Arts and Crafts movement

 

The Arts and Crafts movement was an aesthetic movement started by designer, poet and reformer William Morris. In 1861 Morris founded the interior decorators and manufacturers Morris, Marshall, Faulkner and Company.  Morris during his time studying Classics at Oxford University, became influenced by medievalism. The company was founded with a desire to capture the spirit and quality of medieval craftsmanship. By the 1890s the influence of the movement had spread and become part of a growing international interest in design.

 

Cottage Garden ideas and the Arts and Crafts movement

American horticulturalist Major Lawrence Johnston created the Serre de la Madone garden in France and the Hidcote Manor garden in the Cotswolds in the UK. The Cotswolds had become a centre for the arts and crafts movement due to artists like Dante Rosetti and his friend William Morris moving out of smoggy London to the Cotwolds. The rural setting far from London with its beautiful scenery and idyllic lifestyle made it a magnet for the type of cottage industries that were part of the movement. At the time, local crafts and skills had not been overtaken by industrialisation. Architect Charles Robert Ashbee moved from London to Chipping Campden and set up factories in some rural buildings employing around 150 skilled craftsmen.

Hidcote Cottage Garden Design

The early parts of the Hidcote garden design were very much in line with the Arts and Crafts movement. Later parts of the design became a little more formal. As the garden is separated by hedges, stone walls or by geographic features, these very different garden design styles go together surprisingly well. The garden design concept was that the “rooms” of the garden were and extension of the architecture of the house itself.

 

Arts and Crafts Movement Cottage Garden ideas

Cottage Garden ideas. A stone garden path with overflowing border plants is often a feature of Arts and Crafts gardens. Between the 1890s and 1930s gardens the Arts and Crafts Movement was a major influence in Cottage Garden design.

Cottage Gardens often give the appearance of cheerful simplicity.  In reality, the creator of the garden,Major Lawrence Johnston, was an avid collector of garden plants. The Major, went on exotic plant hunting expeditions to Yunnan, China in 1930 and South Africa in 1927 to find plants for his garden. The province of Yunnan in South West China has been the source of over 10,000 plants for western gardens.

 

Neat hedge and stone landscaping of paths with topiary Yew hedges Cottage Garden ideas

Cottage Garden ideas. Neat hedge and stone landscaping of paths with topiary Yew hedges with topiary box, hornbeam and holly. Rustic Stone Garden paths.

The topiary hedges at Hidcote create interesting views, but also help to divide the garden into smaller garden rooms. Many of these rooms explore different garden design themes. Hidcote is a great place to visit for garden design ideas.

 

Looking through the hedge at the colourful garden. Cottage Garden ideas

Cottage Garden ideas. Looking through the hedge at the colourful garden with stone garden path.

When viewed through a cut out in a hedge, the spectacular and colourful cottage style gardens create surprise and delight.

 

A garden seat in a shady part of the garden. Cottage Garden ideas

Cottage Garden ideas. A garden seat in a shady part of the garden. Rustic Stone Garden paths.

Some parts of the garden are a little more formal with neatly trimmed path edges.

 

Roses are always a great Cottage Garden idea.

Cottage Garden ideas. Roses are always a favourite in the cottage garden.

The old garden looking back towards the house is a mass of cottage garden plants. Hidcote was the first purchase for the National Trust for the garden alone.

 

Garden Stairs terracotta roof tiles

Cottage Garden ideas. Garden steps made from hand crafted terracotta roof tiles laid edgeways. Hidcote Manor.

A great example of the use of quality craftsmanship is the garden steps created from hand crafted ceramic roofing tiles laid edgeways. Years of garden visitors has worn the edges of the tiles and given them even more character. These garden design features are typical of the arts and crafts movement.

 

 

Cottage Garden Pathway Design

Another more formal garden room. Dividing the garden up into smaller garden rooms makes it possible to explore different garden design themes within the same garden. Each room is like a small garden design in itself.

 

 

COTTAGE GARDEN STONE PATHWAY

An example of a rustic stone pathway from the Arts and Crafts movement.

Cottage gardens have many different designs of garden paths. Ideally natural looking garden path materials should be used to create the cottage garden effect.  There are many different ways of laying out your cottage garden path. The path can be a single main path with an outer path, crossed paths with an outer path, a diamond shaped path, or as in the picture above, an oval shaped path layout with a garden in the centre.

 

Rustic Garden Path with overflowing border plants.

 

 

Crushed Rock garden pathway with overflowing border plants.

 

 

Gardens Separated by hedges

Gardens Separated by hedges.

 

An example of the craftsmanship is the garden stairs made from ceramic roof tiles laid edgeways. These stairs lead to a terraced lawn which is also laid out like a separate room.

 

 

Lawn Pathways with garden urns neat hedges and border shrubs

Lawn Pathways with garden urns neat hedges and border shrubs.

 

 

Garden Wall with herbaceous perennial border plants and crushed rock pathways.

 

 

Some of the later garden designs at Hidcote were a little more formal, but still have a cottage appeal.

 

 

A rustic hand crafted stone wall will give you cottage garden an authentic look. Note the use of complimentary flowers in front.

 

 

 

A garden gate helps to separate the garden into different rooms. Note the more formal garden with box hedges on the other side.

 

 

 

Formal box hedges. Later parts of the garden moved away from the arts and crafts style.

 

 

 

Manicured Hedges and lawn. The garden paths appear to go forever.

 

 

 

Cottage Gaden

A view through the hedges separating the gardens. Rustic Stone Garden paths.

 

 

Garden Rooms

The separated garden rooms alow the garden designer to explore a different theme in each one.

 

 

 

A small stream runs through the garden.

 

 

 

Garden Stream

A garden stream separates parts of the lower garden

 

 

 

Stone Garden Path

The Stone Garden Path crosses the stream with a well crafted stepping stone.

 

 

 

Yew hedges and garden rooms

Yew hedges and garden rooms. Rustic Stone Garden paths. Terracotta pots.

 

 

 

Yew hedges and garden rooms

The same view two month later. It is alway worth revisiting Hidcote to see the different seasons in the garden.

 

 

 

Magnolias and Daffodils Cottage Garden ideas.

Magnolias and Daffodils with a winding garden path.

 

 

 

Rustic Cottage Garden ideas

A Rustic Cottage Garden with stone wall, yew hedge and herbaceous perennials.

 

 

 

Hedge cut out Cottage Garden ideas.

Cut outs in the hedges provide vistas into other garden rooms.

 

 

 

Garden water feature with a view back to the house.

Garden water feature with a view back to the house.

 

 

 

The famous Hidcote Pillar Garden. Topiary Yew trees and hedges. Cottage Garden ideas.

The famous Hidcote Pillar Garden. Topiary Yew trees and hedges.

 

 

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Cottage Gardens

Cottage Gardens in Melbourne

Melbourne Cottage Gardens owe much to the English cottage gardens of the 1800s. If you have a Cottage Style Home or a heritage style home, there is a lot you can do in the garden to give your home garden that authentic look. Many of the garden design ideas can also be applied to you small Melbourne garden.

The history of Cottage Gardens.

Melbourne cottage gardens designs can trace their heritage back to the English cottage gardens of the 19th century. These, in turn have origins going back centuries earlier in 87 AD. When the Romans invaded Britain, they brought with them many plants with both medicinal and food supply purposes. Later, Emperor Charlemagne even went so far as to recommend what plants should be grown. In Capitulare de villis, which guided the governance of royal estates, Charlemagne recommended many plants from southern Europe. These plants included gladiolus, cucumbers, melons, cumin, rosemary, artichokes and fennel. Many of these plants would have looked and tasted much different to the plants we harvest today. The result of Charlemagne’s decree in around 780 AD, was to greatly increase the variety of plants grown in the royal estates.

Emperor Charlemagne decreed the plants to be grown on Royal Estates.

Emperor Charlemagne decreed the plants to be grown on Royal Estates.

The Monastery Garden

The monks in monasteries created gardens to not only feed themselves, but also to produce medicines and essential oils. Within the walls of the monasteries, the monks developed sophisticated garden designs which formed the basis of the cottage gardens we know today. As well as food crops, monks also developed cheeses, beers and alcoholic spirits. Some the products developed by monks are still famous today. Monks also made money through the production of honey and lavender. Lavender water was manufactured my monks by diluting essential oils produced through the distillation of lavender flowers. This was an early example of a cottage industry.

Monks developed sophisticated garden designs which formed the basis of the cottage gardens we know today

Lavender field in the monastery of Saint Paul de Mausole in France. Monks developed sophisticated garden designs which formed the basis of the cottage gardens we know today

 

Garden diversity

The age of discovery lead to a boom in garden diversity. Many new garden plants were brought back from the new world and the Far East to add to the European plants already in cultivation. Botanical Gardens were established in most major cities to further horticultural research and the use of plants for medicinal purposes. Exotic plants were also propagated for their beauty as garden plants.

 

Melbourne Botanical Gardens

 

On a swampy site near the Yarra River, the Melbourne Botanical Gardens were established in 1846 by Lieutenant Governor Charles La Trobe. The first director of the Melbourne Botanical Gardens was famous Botanist Ferdinand Von Mueller. Von Mueller’s garden design included a formal garden with a specific educational purpose. This garden was designed to show the relationships between families of plants. Horticultural shows also took place in the gardens during Von Mueller’s time, bring the beauty of flowering plants to masses of people in inner city Melbourne.

The famous floral clock at Melbourne Botanical Gardens with sweeping lawns and Canary Island Palms (Phoenix canariensis). A great place to go for Garden Design ideas.

The famous floral clock at Melbourne Botanical Gardens with sweeping lawns and Canary Island Palms (Phoenix canariensis). A great place to go for Garden Design ideas.

Melbourne Botanical Gardens – The “Master of Landscaping”.

The next director after Von Mueller was the “master of landscaping” William Guilfoyle. During Guilfoyle’s time in charge, many of the landscaping features in the Melbourne Botanical Gardens were established. This included the sweeping lawns and the use of foliage plants that we see in many Melbourne Gardens today.

 

The evolution of English Cottage Gardens

 

Industrialisation and urbanisation lead to changes to the English Cottage gardens. During the industrial revolution, the philanthropic movements assisted Britain’s poor to establish their own garden allotments. These enabled families to grow fruit and vegetables either next to their house or together in green belts in the towns and villages. This no doubt improved the quality of life amongst English families.

With greater middle-class wealth, many humble cottage gardens began to emulate the plantings seen in the wealthy estates. Cottage gardens were no longer just to sustain a family but became a source of beauty as well.

 

Cottage Gardens and the Arts and Crafts Movement

 

The excesses of industrialisation during the Victorian era lead to the establishment of the Arts and Crafts movement. This was born of a desire to restore simplicity to buildings and furnishings and revive traditional craftsmanship. The effect of this movement on garden design and in particular cottage garden design, was enormous.

 

Arts and Crafts Movement Garden

Hidecote – Between the 1890s and 1930s gardens the Arts and Crafts Movement influenced Cottage Garden design.

These gardens used natural materials and traditional craftsmanship and echoed the architectural elements of the  garden design.

Arts and Crafts Movement Cottage Garden at Hidecote. Ornamental Garden Structures such as gazebos, and use of natural materials like this stone path are hallmarks of an Arts and crafts garden. Also note the plant choice and overflowing look typical of a typical English garden.

Arts and Crafts Movement Cottage Garden at Hidecote. Ornamental Garden Structures such as gazebos, and use of natural materials like this stone path are hallmarks of an Arts and crafts garden. Also note the plant choice and overflowing look typical of a typical English garden.

 

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