Archives for Commercial Concreting

Contractors installing concrete curbing Boulevard Gardens Melbourne

Commercial Curb Construction Techniques

Commercial Curb Construction Techniques are a vital part of commercial landscaping.

Before even starting to discuss apropos the construction techniques of commercial curbs, it is pertinent to ask a simple yet important question: what is a curb?

What is a curb?

Curb is a short wall or a barrier constructed usually of bluestone, concrete or asphalt. Technically speaking, a curb along with gutter is provided to strengthen the pavement of the road as this holds the pavement from either side. However, there are multiple advantages that come along with it. It separates the yard and/ or footpaths from the road; it guides water for the proper drainage through gutter; it increases the runoff preventing the water seepages which might affect the road itself [1]–[3].

concrete curb construction

Concrete curb construction

Now that we understand what a curb is, let’s get into its types and the materials they use. Most curbs are constructed with concrete and asphalt – concrete being the most commonly used material. Concrete curbs can be

  1. Vertical Curb
  2. Flush Curb
  3. Mountable Curb [3].



Figure 1 Types of Concrete Curbs [3]


How are curbs made?

Contractors installing concrete curbing Boulevard Gardens Melbourne

Contractors installing concrete curbing Boulevard Gardens Melbourne


Concrete curbing can be done using two techniques:

  1. Traditional Way – i.e. using stationary forms
  2. Slipforming – i.e. using a slipforming machine

The traditional way of constructing a concrete curb is no different to any other concrete structure construction. The forms of steel, wood or any other material – depending on where you live – are placed and tightened before the pouring of the concrete.

concrete curb formwork

Concrete curb wooden formwork. Boulevard Gardens Melbourne

The concrete formwork is later removed the next day after the concrete hardens and is ready for curing.


Concrete curb construction using insitu concrete construction techniques.

Concrete curb construction using insitu concrete construction techniques.

Slipforming, however, is a new method of concrete curbing. The concrete is placed using a machine which has set dimensions of a curb. The concrete is then placed and the machine moves to form the second part of the curb.

insitu concrete curb

A freshly constructed curb using slipforming construction techniques.



New Concrete curb

New Concrete curb

This type of concrete curbing depends on the setting time of cement used in the concrete. Additional admixtures such as accelerators are usually used in the concrete to achieve a speedy construction process.

Video 1 Slipforming [4]

Decorative concrete curbing is no different, it can be done using both traditional and slipforming techniques – what changes is the type of aggregate in the concrete.

There are some additional things to take care of when constructing the curbs. The curbs – since they are made up of concrete – require joints in order to avoid stresses caused due to thermal expansion. Steel reinforcement can usually be avoided if proper expansion joints are provided at suitable intervals. Curing is another important thing to consider for a good quality concrete curb. The concrete tends to gain its strength over the course of years. However, most of its strength is gained during the first 28 days and therefore proper curing should be provided. The curing time can be shortened in case any accelerator or curing agent is used.

New Concrete Curb curing

New Concrete Curb curing. Joints are provided in order to avoid stresses caused due to thermal expansion.


Now that we are done with construction techniques and important things to consider when constructing a concrete curb, let’s talk a little about the application of different types of curbs.

Vertical Curbs serve as barriers in addition to their basic purpose of strengthening and holding the pavement from either sides. The vertical curbs are usually constructed with monolithic gutters which drain off the storm water in order to prevent the pavement from any damage.

Flushed curb is usually serving its main purpose of holding the pavement without affecting the drainage of storm water. The curb is flushed so it doesn’t stop the storm water from making its way to the yard and/ or footpath where the drainage is usually taken care of.

Mountable curbs are designed so as they not only hold the pavement, and guide the storm water but also allow the cars to drive over them. They are usually constructed with vehicle crossovers to allow the vehicles to access private properties which later connect to driveways.

Mountable Concrete curb. Boulevard Gardens Melbourne.


We have already come across the vehicle crossovers, let’s take some time to understand what a vehicle crossover actually is and what goes into their construction.


concrete driveway crossover

Concrete curb crossover terminology.

The vehicle crossover, as the Town of Cambridge describes it, is a part between your private property and road kerb [5]. The vehicle cross over is usually designed in order to provide support to the pavement and at the same time allowing the passage of vehicles from road to the private property without hurting the people walking or cycling on the footpath.

Figure 2 A Typical vehicle crossover [6]

The vehicle crossover has a trapezoidal plan with splays on its side to allow the vehicles to mount from sides. The vehicle crossovers, very similar to driveways, can be constructed using decorative aggregates. Multiple methods which can used to construct decorative concrete driveways can be used for the vehicle cross over construction as well.

Similar to driveway, the base of the vehicle crossover shall be strong enough to take the loads of vehicles without any damage. A compressive strength of 30 MPa shall be able sustain the loads. Additionally, the concrete provided shall be impermeable so as to allow the runoff of storm water. The drainage of the road should not hinder with the construction of crossover and therefore proper drainage system should be provided. In order to avoid the skidding of cars, an exposed aggregate concrete driveway should be preferred – exposed aggregate concrete provides better skid resistance with reduced traffic noise.


Related Landscaping News from Red’s Landscaping Melbourne.


7 pluses for Exposed Aggregate Concrete Driveways


3 Best Concrete Path Construction Techniques


7 Reasons to Choose Concrete Pavement


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3 Best Types of Concrete Retaining Wall


In-situ Concrete



[1]      “What Are Curb and Gutter | Types of Curb and Gutter| Advantages & Disadvantages of Curb and Gutter.” Civil Jungle (accessed Oct. 31, 2021).

[2]      “What is the Purpose of Curb & Gutter? – Asphalt Paving Company: Uniform Paving & Sealcoating.” Uniform Paving (accessed Oct. 31, 2021).

[3]      “Multi-modal Handbook.” Multimodal Handbook (accessed Oct. 31, 2021).

[4]      “GOMACO GT-3600 Concrete Curb & Gutter Slipform Machine, Tight-Radii Island Paving With 3D Guidance – YouTube.” (accessed Oct. 31, 2021).

[5]      “Vehicle Crossover Specification.” (accessed Oct. 31, 2021).

[6]      “Vehicular Crossing | Hornsby Shire Council.” (accessed Oct. 31, 2021).



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Drought tolerant landscaping - Irrigation drip system

5 Best commercial irrigation systems

Commercial Irrigation is the method of watering plants, crops, and pasture by using water. This water is supplied through several ways such as sprinklers, canals, pipes, pumps, sprays, and other artificial methods instead of only depending on rainwater. It can also be defined as the technique of advanced watering system for helping plants grow because it is practiced as an alternative to rain-fed farming.


Commercial sprinkler system watering a green lawn.


Irrigation is the method used to fulfil the requirement of water of the plant or crop because water is essential for their growth. Additionally, irrigation water also provides vital nutrients to the plants, which are dissolved in this water, resulting in plants remaining green and producing maximum and better quality yield.


Commercial irrigation systems

Commercial irrigation systems are designed for a broader scope. This type of irrigation system is usually used at schools, apartments, complexes, etc. Often, commercial systems irrigate those lawns and landscapes that experience heavy traffic and need more water. The commercial irrigation system is particularly prominent in sports complexes and golf courses.


commercial irrigation sprinklers

Automatic lawn sprinkler watering green grass. Sprinkler with automatic system. Garden irrigation system watering lawn. Water saving or water conservation from sprinkler system with adjustable head.

Why is commercial Irrigation necessary?

Your lawn is a reflection of your property. It would be attractive, like a green carpet. With the help of Irrigation, you can keep your landscape alive throughout the year. Fixing an irrigation system confirms that your lawn is green, attractive, and healthy. A proper irrigation system makes it possible that to irrigate your lawn without overwatering or watering concrete footpaths.


Drought tolerant Landscaping -Osmosis and transpiration

Drought tolerant Landscaping -Osmosis and transpiration

Additionally, there are several other advantages of commercial irrigation systems. Due to this, we conserve water and save money in the long run because manual Irrigation wastes a tremendous amount of water and increases the water bill. Commercial irrigation systems like the drip irrigation system can prevent weeds’ growth because the drip irrigation system waters the root systems of flowers, trees, and plants. With drip irrigation, you can also decrease the number of weeds popping up on your commercial lawn.

Drought tolerant landscaping - Irrigation drip system

Drought tolerant landscaping – Irrigation drip system delivers water to the right place, the root systems of flowers, trees, and plants. With drip irrigation, you can also decrease the number of weeds popping up.


With the help of commercial irrigation systems, we can save time because running a business is time-consuming. If you irrigate your lawn yourself, it will be more time-consuming and headache for you. The benefit of having a programmed irrigation system is suitable. It allows you to set the irrigation schedule daily or weekly, depending on the season. Due to programming irrigation, you can be guessing out that how much water your commercial landscape requires.

Five Best commercial irrigation systems

The design of the landscape was incomplete without the proper irrigation plan. Because depend on rainwater is impossible, specifically in Australia where the rainfall is insufficient and unreliable. There are a lot of options for commercial irrigation systems, and each has its benefits. In all these systems, which method is better? The answer to this question depends on numerous aspects such as soil, planting, climate, and exposure. Planning your irrigation needs is a critical part of landscape design. These are the five best commercial irrigation systems that can fulfil your lawn water requirements and keep them healthy.

commercial irrigation system scematic

Schematic of a commercial irrigation system with both sprinklers and drippers.

Sprinkler irrigation system

It is the application of water in a spray formed from water flow under pressure through small nozzles and openings. The flexibility of present-day sprinkler equipment and its efficient control of water application make this method more useful for commercial lawn and landscapes, agronomic crops, and vegetable production.

commercial irrigation popup lawn sprinkler.

Automatic commercial irrigation sprinkler system greening the grass.

The most common determined of sprinkler irrigation is to put on water uniformly on the soil surface to replace water extracted by plants. The pressure is generally obtained by pumping, even though gravity might obtain it if the water source is high enough above the irrigated area. 


Advantages of sprinkler irrigation system

Some of the essential advantages of the sprinkler irrigation system are

  • It is reasonable and completely set up. You would not have to spend much on labor costs for setting it up.
  • There is no necessity to utilize many areas of your field for setting up sprinkler irrigation.
  • The intervention with cultivation for setting up the sprinkler irrigation is pointedly less. So, you will not face a huge loss.
  • Frequent application of water can be provided to the plants. You will not need to do it yourself.
  • The dispersion will consistently be equivalent.
  • The amount of water being provided can be controlled, so you will also be able to save water subjected to the necessity and requirement of plants.
  • The sprinkler irrigation is appropriate for setting up in all types of soil.
  • This system can be utilised for different purposes as well as cooling during high temperatures.
sprinkler irrigation system

Smart garden automatic sprinkler irrigation system working early in the morning in green park – watering lawn and colourful tulips narcissus.

Disadvantages of sprinkler irrigation system

Following are the disadvantages of sprinkler irrigation system

  • The investment cost required for buying the apparatus of the sprinkler irrigation system is high.
  • Spraying water droplets uniformly, there is a requirement for a constant water supply.
  • The nonstop power supply is essential for operating sprinkler irrigation systems.
  • The chance of evaporation is maximum if the environment is windy.
  • Due to the presence of debris and other deposits in the nozzles, it can get clogged.


2)   Drip Irrigation System

In this irrigation system, a network of pipes is laid in the area you want to irrigate. The tubes have emitters or holes at intervals that help deliver water to the roots of the plants. Drip irrigation is best for garden and commercial lawns. It can also be used in high-value crops, including vineyards and orchards.

For drip irrigation, you can place the pipes underground or above the ground. Drip irrigation is trending because it uses 30 to 50 percent less water than other irrigation system. The water drips slowly and only targets the roots of the plants.

drip irrigation system

Drip irrigation for flowers.

Advantages of drip irrigation system

Following are some advantages of a drip irrigation system.

  • In this system of Irrigation, water is used at the optimum level.
  • As water is applied locally and leaching is reduced, the leaching of nutrients is also reduced.
  • Water will be unavailable for weeds, so their growth is less because it cannot absorb moisture.
  • The yield of the crop will be maximum because of maximum water and nutrients use efficiency.\
  • It also prevents the erosion of soil
  • Energy cost is minimal as it is operated at a lower pressure than other irrigation systems.
  • In uneven lands, the drip irrigation method can do balance irrigation.


Disadvantages of drip irrigation system

Following are some demerits of drip irrigation system

  • It may be expensive.
  • It needs extraordinary practical knowledge for successful operation.
  • In heavy soils, it makes difficulties of movement and water blockages.
  • Plants can get nutritional elements in a minimal area.
  • Maximum attention has to be taken for holes of drippers since the soil may come along with water at any time, which will prevent water dripping smoothing from holes.


Surface irrigation system

In a surface irrigation system, water is applied and distributed over the soil surface by gravity. It is the most common form of Irrigation throughout the world and has been practiced in many areas virtually unchanged for thousands of years.

In this type of Irrigation, water is supplied to the top end of the lawn, and it will flow or advance above the field size. After the water spreads to the end of the field, it will run off or start to the pond. Surface irrigation is also known as flood irrigation. Surface irrigation comes in three major types such as level basin, furrow, and border strip.

furrow surface irrigation

Surface irrigation using the furrow method on a field of corn.


Basin irrigation: Irrigation of land by surrounding it with barriers to form a basin and flooding it with water.

Furrow Irrigation is a method of laying out the water channels in such a way that gravity provides just enough water for suitable plants.

Border strip irrigation is a type of surface irrigation where the field is divided into strips separated by border ridges, and the area between the ridges is flooded during irrigation.

Advantages of surface irrigation system

Following are the advantages of a surface irrigation system

  • The management of surface irrigation systems is relatively easy, and you do not need any recent machinery. If you have limited traditional information, you can do it.
  • You do not need the proper economic support. You can be advantageous with small lands too.
  • If you have short-time water supplies, then this is the best process for you.
  • You need longer tubes if the drainage system is far from you.
  • The surface irrigation system is nature friendly. Due to surface irrigation, you can also utilize rainwater.
  • The surface irrigation system can also work efficiently at the minimum rate of filtration.
  • You can use this type of irrigation process in sloping lands and long commercial landscapes.
  • Energy requirements for surface irrigation systems come from gravity. It is a significant advantage in today’s economy using negligible energy means.


Disadvantages of Surface Irrigation

The followings are the surface irrigation disadvantages.

  • Level lands require high accuracy, and you cannot use them there.
  • Not appropriate for soil with a great rate of filtration.
  • Plants are continuously enclosed with water even when they do not need it.
  • Sometimes limited space gets more water than required.
  • No drainage outlet.


Centre Pivot Irrigation System

A Centre pivot irrigation system refers to using a mechanical irrigation system that can help irrigate crops by maintaining a circular pattern around a centre pivot. It essentially consists of a long radial pipe that is supported by sprinkling towers. These towers pivot around a centre point of the whole mechanism. The tubes consist of equally spaced nozzles to supply water to the surroundings. As the lines rotate, the water is uniformly released from the nozzles.

The centre-pivot irrigation system is the most popular globally because of its high efficiency, high uniformity, ability to irrigate uneven terrain, and low capital, maintenance, and management costs.

Centre Pivot Irrigation

Centre Pivot Irrigation System in a green Field of lush lawn.


Advantages of centre pivot irrigation system

The centre-pivot irrigation system has many advantages, including

  • The system can apply the prescribed volume of water to match crop water requirements. It reduces the opportunity for surface runoff or deep percolation.
  • It has been reported that the efficiency of the new design machine is 80-95% compared to 50-90% for the surface irrigation system.
  • The requirement of labourers is generally low as compared to the surface irrigation system.
  • This irrigation system may also be used to apply herbicides and pesticides.
  • It May operate at lower pressure, thus may conserving energy.
  • There is no need to level the land, saving a lot of money and environmental damage.

Disadvantages of centre pivot irrigation system

There is no perfect irrigation system. Every type has advantages and disadvantages. The negative associated with the center pivot include.

  • High initial cost
  • High maintenance cost
  • The field surface should be flat.
  • Not suitable for Irrigation in windy conditions. Uneven water application may occur, and applied fertilizers may be carried away.


Subsurface Commercial Irrigation systems 

In this irrigation system, water is applied beneath the land surface through a network of buried perforated or open jointed pipes. As water is passed under pressure in these pipes, it comes through open joints. The depth of pipes should not be less than 40 cm so that these do not cause any interference to the cultivation. The water used in this type of Irrigation should be of good quality, so the perforation does not get clogged. The subsurface irrigation system is growing in importance today. It provides numerous opportunities for large-scale and small growers alike.

subsurface drip irrigation

Soaker hoses installed in trenches for water irrigation to a garden flower bed

Advantages of subsurface commercial irrigation systems

Some advantages of subsurface irrigation systems are

  • There is an immediate reduction in coat simply because there is no need for a worker to water plants since the subsurface irrigates the field automatically.
  • It costs less to water plants more fully. Less water is lost in the process, and there is no runoff and evaporation.
  • Excellent performance in the windy and arid location
  • Plants grown in these conditions may grow more uniformly. The water is evenly distributed across all plants, improving the overall growth level.
  • Frequent Irrigation allows for optimum soil moisture content in the root zone.


`Disadvantages of subsurface commercial irrigation systems

Some disadvantages of the subsurface irrigation system are given below.

  • Driving vehicles over a subsurface irrigation system will likely damage piping.
  • Bacterial slimes and algae growing on the interior walls of the laterals and emitters combined with clay particles in the water can block the emitters.
  • A lot of repair work is caused by rodents chewing the tubes.
  • Storage facilities for effluent must exist for extended periods when the ground for subsurface irrigation systems is wet or frozen.

Related Information from Red’s Landscaping Melbourne

5 tips for Drought Tolerant Landscaping in Melbourne

9 Reasons to choose a commercial rooftop garden


Commercial Landscaping of Public Spaces.


Commercial Landscaping Melbourne


© Red’s Landscaping Melbourne – Quality Landscapers Melbourne


Irrigation References and Further Information

Drip systems


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exposed aggregate driveway

7 pluses for Exposed Aggregate Concrete Driveways

Exposed Aggregate Concrete Driveways are made from one of the most versatile construction material available.  Researchers and scientists from all around the world have been studying and experimenting to make concrete a better and more sustainable material.

The Durability of Concrete

Its durability and ease of construction makes concrete a first choice for designers and constructors alike in an array of projects. Construction of exposed aggregate concrete driveways is no different. Gone are the days when the driveways were only bituminous i.e. flexible which requires a very good base to transfer the loads to the soil. Concrete Driveways/ pavements are rigid which use the slab action to transfer the loads and therefore work fine even if the base has flaws.

Contrasting Exposed aggregate concrete

Creating some shade with a tree in the concreted area. The tree roots are protected with a slotted stainless steel grate. The lighter colour Hansen Galaxy forms a geometric pattern around the grate.

With time, concrete driveways have evolved to exposed aggregate concrete driveways which now are pretty standard in a number of countries due to  the benefits they provide.  Exposed aggregate concrete driveways and/ or pavements are, simply speaking, concrete pavements having aggregates exposed on the top layer. This brings a beautiful yet rugged feeling to the pavement along with the required friction that a driveway needs.

A plethora of research studies suggest that Exposed Aggregate Concrete Driveways offer better skid resistance with less traffic noise (What Is Exposed Aggregate? Exposed Aggregate Concrete Explained, n.d.; Zhang et al., 2014). Although there are multiple other reasons to choose exposed aggregate concrete driveway over the conventional ones, the two mentioned above sets this kind of driveway apart for it deals with noise pollution and provides safety more than its counterparts. Not only has it been used in driveways at private properties but in highways all around the world. Some countries like Australia and UK have even gone as far as creating highways and studying its benefits over years long research projects.

skid marks concrete pavers

A set of skid marks concrete pavers. The skid resistance of exposed aggregate concrete makes it a safer choice.

Figure 2 Skid Marks (What You Should Do When Tyre Skid Marks Appear in Your Street, n.d.)

7 reasons to choose Exposed Aggregate Concrete Driveway over a conventional concrete driveway.

  1. Skid Resistance – a safer choice.
  2. Less Vehicular Noise – environmentally sustainable.
  3. Reduced Glaring
  4. Versatile – can be produced of different colours with different aggregate textures
  5. Durable – it is as durable as conventional concrete and can last for around four decades
  6. Cost Effective – Although a little expensive than conventional concrete, it offers a cost effective package considering the benefits it brings along with it.
  7. Ease of construction – It is easier to construct as compared to other options which offer an aesthetic value to the driveway.


As noted above, exposed aggregate concrete offers a more aesthetic yet safer alternative to a conventional concrete driveway. It brings in the options of multiple textures and colours that one can get with the usage of different kinds of aggregates to be exposed on the top layer. Further, variation in colour can be achieved using pigmented cements to create a contrast between the construction and the driveway.

Exposed Aggregate Concrete, although first utilised in 1990s in Australia and UK ,is still a recent trend for many residences and in commercial landscaping.


exposed aggregate concrete

Alternating colours of exposed aggregate concrete.


Q: How is an exposed aggregate concrete driveway constructed.

Different exposed aggregate concrete installers will have slightly different construction techniques. Technically speaking, there are four methods to achieve an exposed aggregate concrete finish for your driveway.

  1. Brushing and Washing: The oldest yet simplest method. After some time, the surface of concrete is washed and brushed using a broom to a desirable depth where the aggregates are exposed.
  2. Using Chemicals: Chemicals – retarders to be specific – are sprayed on the top surface which slows the setting and hardening time of the upper layer which later becomes easy to remove.
  3. Seeding the decorative aggregate: This is rather easy and provides the finishing of one’s own choice. Right after placing concrete, one can seed the decorative aggregate on the top layer.
  4. Topping: This method is used when an existing conventional concrete is upgraded to an exposed aggregate concrete driveway. A small layer of exposed aggregate concrete is poured over the already existing slab.
  5. Mixing the decorative aggregate: Mixing the aggregate to be exposed in the concrete would expensive but less labour intensive task.

Q: Is exposed aggregate concrete expensive?

Yes, but not by a huge percentage. Decorative aggregates are usually required in this case which cost a little higher than conventional aggregate. So, is the case with retarding agents – if used!

Q: Is exposed aggregate concrete strong?

Exposed Aggregate Concrete is as strong as conventional concrete. It is no different than conventional concrete except for its surface. It can take vehicular loads just as good as conventional concrete even during extreme weather conditions.

Q: Should you seal exposed aggregate concrete driveway?

Yes, the exposed aggregate concrete driveway – very similar to conventional concrete driveway – requires sealing after every 4 to 5 years.


Related Concrete Information from Red’s Landscaping Melbourne

7 Reasons to Choose Concrete Pavement


Commercial Concreting


4 types of Eco-Friendly Concrete


3 Best Types of Concrete Retaining Wall


9 Concrete facts for Melbourne Landscapers.


3 Best Concrete Path Construction Techniques


7 Great Reasons to choose Permeable Concrete



© Red’s Landscaping Melbourne – Quality Landscapers Melbourne




5 Incredible Advantages of Having Exposed Aggregate Concrete in Your Home – TechSling Weblog. (n.d.). Retrieved October 16, 2021, from

Exposed Aggregate Concrete – Decorative Pebble Finish – Concrete Network. (n.d.). Retrieved October 15, 2021, from

Exposed Aggregate Concrete Driveways Melbourne & Concrete driveways Melbourne | Exposed aggregate driveway, Exposed aggregate concrete, Aggregate concrete. (n.d.). Retrieved October 16, 2021, from

Nakhi, A. Ben, & Alhumoud, J. M. (2019). Effects of Recycled Aggregate on Concrete Mix and Exposure to Chloride.

Perth’s Best Exposed Aggregate Driveways – Decorative Concrete WA. (n.d.). Retrieved October 15, 2021, from

Understanding the Meaning of Exposed Aggregate Concrete. (n.d.). Retrieved October 16, 2021, from

What Is Exposed Aggregate? Exposed Aggregate Concrete Explained. (n.d.). Retrieved October 15, 2021, from

What You Should Do When Tyre Skid Marks Appear in Your Street. (n.d.). Retrieved October 16, 2021, from

Zhang, J. P., Liu, G. Q., & Wang, P. Z. (2014). Skid-Resistance and Noise-Reducing Characteristics of Exposed-Aggregate Cement Concrete Pavement. Advanced Materials Research, 1052, 352–357.


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commercial concrete pavement Melbourne

7 Reasons to Choose Concrete Pavement

A concrete pavement is the most durable, strongest, and cost effective road surfaces readily available. It also has an important niche in commercial landscaping.

Concrete pavement, technically speaking, are one of two major pavements types: Flexible Pavements and Rigid Pavements.

pouring concrete roads

Pouring of concrete roads at a recent landscaping construction.


Bituminous ,or Asphalt, pavements and roads have layers of materials which transfer the load directly to the sub-grade. They are called flexible pavements since the pavement structure bends and deflects when under traffic loads and therefore provide a load to narrow as compared to concrete pavements.

asphalt pavement flexibility

The more flexible asphalt pavement transfers a more concentrated load to the lower layers.

Rigid Pavements, like concrete pavements, are usually reinforced with steel. They are stiffer when compared to asphalt roads owing to the comparatively high modulus of elasticity of reinforced concrete. It is for this reason that the concrete pavement will transfer the load over a wide area of the sub-grade. This results in much lower stress levels in the sub-grade and increases the road’s durability.


Steel reinforced concrete pavement is stiff and transfers the load over a larger area.

Concrete pavements usually act as a concrete slab and therefore transfer the load to bigger area creating a lower stress. Concrete pavements, therefore, are usually thinner as compared to asphalt pavements [1]. This can be a great advantage when there is infrastructure under the road that the commercial road maker needs to avoid.


Commercial concrete pavement onstruction

In this news article we shall talk about seven reasons why concrete pavements are a better choice especially when it comes to commercial landscaping.

1.    Longevity of Concrete Pavement

Concrete pavements usually last longer. On average, the concrete pavements can last for 20-40 years as compared to 10-15 years of flexible pavements. These numbers are estimated for pavements under high traffic loads, with commercial landscaping pavement the lifetime of the road can be even higher.[1].

pot holed asphalt roads

An asphalt road with a series of pol-holes starting to appear.

2.    Ease of Construction of Concrete Pavement

As discussed earlier, concrete pavements distribute the load directly to the sub-grade or base course, in some cases, as compared to multiple layers of asphalt pavements. Such layers are difficult to prepare since special types of construction materials and machines are required.

Asphalt Pavement Road construction layers

An asphalt pavement can have up to 5 layers

The construction of concrete pavements are comparatively easy. No heavy road roller machines are required and the concrete material can be pumped in. This makes the concrete pavement the ideal solution for the construction of roads over basement car parks.

concrete pumping for concrete pavement construction

Concrete pumping for pavement construction

Additionally, concrete pavements are designed on scientific approaches and equations rather than empirical ones which are still used for certain asphalt pavements. Bitumen required for asphalt pavements comes in different grades depending on the weather conditions which can be a hectic process. Concrete comes in different grades based on its strength but is easily available due to its vast usage in the construction industry [3].


Typical concrete pavement layers.

Typical concrete pavement layers.


1.    Low Maintenance concrete pavements

A concrete pavement hardly requires any maintenance and/ or repair unless subjected to loads higher than it is designed for. In case of, commercial landscaping, the concrete pavements are not subjected to any high loads and therefore require almost no repair or maintenance as compared to its counterpart. Asphalt pavements, on the other hand, are prone to damage not only when subjected to higher loads but also when it is in contact oil and/ or other chemicals unlike concrete pavements [4].

2.    Lower Reliance on Pavement Sub-grade

Concrete pavements, unlike asphalt pavements, rely less on the subgrade material and more on the flexural strength of the concrete. The subgrade if fails or is weak at certain part of the pavement does not affect the concrete pavement since it works as a slab. It can ignore certain imperfections in the subgrade without affecting the quality of the pavement. Asphalt pavements as compared to its contender would require repair for such cases due to its high reliance on subgrade. Therefore the subgrade should be of high quality in case of asphalt pavement [4].

3.    Surface Characteristics

A good concrete surface is free from potholes, rutting, and/ or corrugations. These problems do come in localized failures which are avoidable in concrete due to its slab nature. Aforesaid problems are commonly faced when dealing with asphalt pavements [5].

4.    Impervious Layer

Concrete pavements are impervious and provide a better sealing as compared to asphalt pavements. Water tends to penetrate and affect the lower layers in the pavement [5]. This is another great reason to use concrete construction over subterranean basements.

5.    Innovative

With concrete being the most used construction material, a lot of research is conducted which deals with making concrete better. Innovations like self-healing of concrete, permeable concrete (aka pervious concrete) etc. prove that concrete is the construction material from past that is going stay with us in future [6]. Commercial landscaping can be the first industry to try out such innovative concrete types since the pavements in this industry are exposed to very high loads and such innovative concrete types can perform better in such conditions.

self healing concrete pavement

Innovations like self-healing of concrete could reduce the maintenance costs of concrete pavements.

Additionally, concrete tends to provide better visibility as compared to asphalt pavements which are black in colour and provide poor visibility especially in dark. Concrete is also easily available in bags which require mixing with water only or available from concrete plants which can pour concrete in a small time frame. Admixtures can be added to achieve special requirements such as air-entraining agents can be used to avoid freeze and thaw damage in areas where the temperatures can drop to a freezing point.


permeable concrete

Permeable concrete is another innovation that can be applied to concrete pavements.


Innovative concrete pavement decorative finishes

One of the greatest advantages of concrete pavements over asphalts is the enormous range of modern decorative finishes available. One of the most widely used decorative concrete finishes in both residential and commercial landscaping is exposed aggregate concrete. The aggregates are available in a wide range of colours to suit your landscape design.  The available colours include red, brown, dark grey basalt, green quarts as well as black and white. In combination with this selection, the fine grain aggregates or sands are also available in a wide range of selections. The colour of these these fine aggregate will also be the more dominant when the surface is lightly abraded.

Contrasting Exposed aggregate concrete

Creating some shade with a tree in the concreted area. The tree roots are protected with a slotted stainless steel grate. The lighter colour Hansen Galaxy forms a geometric pattern around the grate.

Contact us for your  next concrete pavement project.

Concrete Pavement Construction Melbourne

Concrete Pavement Construction in Melbourne for modern townhouses.

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In-situ Concrete



Concrete Pavement References

[1]      “Pavement Types – Pavement Interactive.” (accessed Oct. 01, 2021).

[2]      “Difference Between Flexible And Rigid Pavement | Engineering Discoveries.” (accessed Oct. 01, 2021).

[3]      Neenu S K, “Difference Between Reinforced Concrete (RC) and Steel Structures.” (accessed Apr. 23, 2021).

[4]      “Difference Between Flexible Pavement And Rigid Pavement.” (accessed Oct. 01, 2021).

[5]      “Difference Between Flexible Pavement and Rigid Pavement | What is Pavement | Types of Pavement -.” (accessed Oct. 01, 2021).

[6]      J. Yang and G. Jiang, “Experimental study on properties of pervious concrete pavement materials,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 381–386, 2003, doi: 10.1016/S0008-8846(02)00966-3.

[7]      S. R. Tabiyar, D. V. R. Patel, and K. Nair, “A Review on Experimental Study of Bacterial based Self-Healing Concrete,” 2018.

[8]      “Carbon Fiber Reinforces Pervious Concrete | Fluence.” (accessed Oct. 01, 2021). Pervious Concrete


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commercial landscaping public space Mill Park

Commercial Landscaping of Public Spaces.

Commercial Landscaping of Public Spaces provides quality open green and accessible places for the community. From walkable shady streets to the commercial landscaping around libraries, museums and community centres, these landscaped areas form the heart of local communities.

public space commercial landscaping

Commercial landscaping of the public space at Mill Park Sports and Aquatic Centre.


It is through these areas that many people in local communities connect, play, walk or cycle. In these ways, the commercial landscaping supports the health and well being of local communities as well as providing essential environmental habitats for indigenous species. The design of the commercial building landscape has a significant impact on the success of these public spaces.

Commercial landscaping with a children's play area.

Commercial landscaping with a children’s play area. Design by Angelo Carrafa Landscape Architects (ACLA)

The History of Public Spaces

Many of the public spaces we see in cities today are reflections of ancient public spaces. Public spaces for democratic political discussion have their roots in the ancient Greek Agora of the Polis and were extended to ancient Roman Fora. The Romans also were instrumental in spreading the Greek peristyle courtyard garden, which later evolved into the cloistered abbey garden and courtyard, throughout Europe.

Public Space Ancient Agora Athens.

Victorian engraving of an ancient view of the Agora at Athens. Note the peristyle building in the background.

Ancient public spaces were primarily functional market places, thoroughfares and meeting places and as such were social spaces.

The Persians, Babylonians and Assyrians

Going back even further, Persian gardens are described in the old testament as pleasure gardens. The gardens were designed to enable cool water and shade to be enjoyed in private.  The landscaping also included man made hills with terraces planted with shrubs and trees.

Greek Gardens of the Classical Period

Sport and public places were both big parts of Greek culture. Sports grounds developed into the academy and the lyceum and people gathered in these places.  The public spaces in Greek life included groves of shade trees which is essential in a Mediterranean garden. Also included were some porticoes, spectator seating and the exercise ground itself. It was around this time that a courtyard garden design with rows of columns supporting roofs over covered walkway became part of the urban lifestyle. This garden design became known as “peristyle” from the Greek word “peri” meaning around (as in perimeter) and “style” which means column. It is thought that this style of architecture originated in temples like the Temple of Hera at Samos and was then adopted for domestic buildings.


Greek doric columns, and gardens

Greek doric columns, and gardens

Greek Gardens of the Hellenistic Period

The death of Alexander the great was the start of a new age in Greece where the country was less Athens centric. New luxurious gardens or pleasure grounds had sprung in the Greek colonies. Notable amongst these were the gardens at Syracuse and Alexandria. These gardens were more influenced by gardens in the east. Under Alexander the great Macedonia had formed a huge empire stretching from Macedonia to parts of India. Within the empire the spread of people brought architecture and landscaping to different cities. After the death of Alexander, the empire was divided, and the various kings spent money on gardens and architecture to impress their guests.

Pleasure Gardens

According to historian John Plumb, the 1700s in London was an age of commercialised leisure. This was largely due to rising incomes and the growth of the middle class in Britain. New ideas emerged about how people could converse and socialise with each other one of these being the pleasure garden. On the rural outskirts of eighteen century London, pleasure gardens sprang up in places like Hampstead, Ranelagh and Vauxhall.

The Cremorne Gardens on the banks of the Yarra

The Cremorne gardens on the banks of the Yarra near Richmond  was Melbourne’s first Amusement park. The concept of the gardens was based on the Cremorne Gardens in Chelsea London.

Cremorne Gardens Melbourne

Cremorne Gardens Melbourne was based on English Pleasure Gardens.


Botanical Gardens

Botanical Gardens such as the Royal Melbourne Botanical Gardens, have formed important public spaces for communities for hundreds of years.

Public Space Ornamental Lake Botanical Gardens Melbourne.


The Commercial Landscaping Goals in Public spaces

The aim of the commercial landscaping design of public spaces should be to make the public space a welcoming and inclusive place for the enjoyment of people of all ages and abilities. This will necessitate the landscape architect designing in wheelchair access, bridges and ramps. The designers and urban planners need to consider the users as the primary focus of the landscape design.

Public Space Ramp for Wheelchair access Balwyn Community Centre.

Public Space Ramp for Wheelchair access Balwyn Community Centre. Design by Angelo Carrafa Landscape Architects (ACLA)

Commercial Landscaping Design

Well designed commercial landscaping should also enhance the opportunities for socialising, recreation and relaxation and along with the aesthetic goals, contribute to the local character of the neighbourhood.

Commercial landscaping Melbourne Balwyn

Commercial Landscaping at Balwyn Community Centre

To these ends, the commercial landscaping and the facilities should where possible include a diversity of activities. Some examples of these include tennis courts, barbeques, scooter tracks, outdoor gyms as well as tranquil areas like urban wetlands. It is essential that these are community facilities that are often available for a wide range of users at different times of the day.

Commercial Landscape Installation. Durable outdoor furniture for parks and public spaces

The provision of comfortable and durable seating is also an essential part of the commercial landscaping design. People in the public space need areas for relaxing and recovering as well as just having a chat with friends.

(Design by Angelo Carrafa Landscape Architects (ACLA) Commercial Landscape Architects )

Seating is particularly important for elderly members of the local community. Where possible curved seating will enable people to chat and hear and see each other better. This curved furniture design will benefit the hearing impaired when chatting with friends.

Commercial Landscaping using Seating using recycled materials.

Commercial Landscaping using Seating using recycled materials. (Photograph by Botton and Gardiner)

Landscaping Infrastructure

Much of the cost of commercial landscaping of public spaces is in the hardscaping infrastructure. This includes structures such as flowing insitu concrete retaining  walls, agricultural drainage, irrigation systems and concrete paths.


Commercial Landscaping with insitu concrete retaining walls

Commercial Landscaping with insitu concrete retaining walls. Design by Angelo Carrafa Landscape Architects (ACLA)


Commuter thoroughfares and Size, Location and Important Interfaces

Some other important factors for the success of the commercial landscaping of public space include size, location and interfaces with adjoining properties. Ideally, pathways will provide a commuting thoroughfare for walking or cycling as well as a pleasant stroll for exercise.

The sustainability of Commercial Landscaping Designs

Modern commercial landscaping makes extensive use of drought tolerant Australian Native plants and drip irrigation systems. Attractive Australian native grasses are used in both mass planting and individual planting schemes. Where planted as individual plants, it is expected that they will naturally spread to fill an area. Much more use of rainwater harvesting is happening in commercial landscaping as well as the use of rain gardens, permeable concrete and permeable paving to filter and retain storm water in commercial landscapes as well as apartment blocks. There is also a trend in commercial landscaping towards much greater use of recycled materials for construction of asphalt roads and paths as well as the use of eco-concrete.

Mudstone Path

The mudstone path to the Balwyn Community Centre Wetlands.

Commercial Landscaping for Active Living

The university of South Australia conducted a study in 2009 on the relationship between active living and the provision of public open space. Amongst the key findings of the study were that attractive commercial landscaping lead to a higher likelihood of people being physically active. This is just one more way that the aesthetic design of commercial landscaping contributes to the health and wellbeing of the community. Another key finding was that “High quality open space design and amenities are crucial.”

Outdoor Gym Installation Balwyn Community Centre

Outdoor Gym Installation Balwyn Community Centre. Design by Angelo Carrafa Landscape Architects (ACLA)


 Commercial Landscaping to attract visitors

Well designed and constructed commercial landscaping will serve to attract visitors to the public space by providing important street appeal. When attractive vistas are available from the interfacing properties and thoroughfares, the public space becomes a people magnet. Commercial landscaping through the provision of trees, shrubs and other greenery will create an aesthetic that people will want to visit. One important factor in Melbourne commercial landscaping is the provision of shade trees over seating areas and car parks. As with residential landscaping, kerb appeal of a public space is important.



Tennis court repair Balwyn

Tennis court construction Balwyn Design by Angelo Carrafa Landscape Architects (ACLA) – Commercial landscape architects



What makes a great public space?


What makes a Public Space Great?

What makes a Public Space Great? An explanation from the Project for Public Spaces.

To quote from the Project for Public Spaces; “Great public spaces are those places where celebrations are held, social and economic exchanges occur, friends run into each other, and cultures mix. They are the “front porches” of our public institutions – libraries, field houses, schools – where we interact with each other and government. When theses spaces work well, they serve as the stage for our public lives.” – Project for Public Spaces

Related Commercial Landscaping information from Red’s Landscaping Melbourne


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© Red’s Landscaping Melbourne – Quality Landscapers Melbourne


More information on Public Spaces and Commercial Landscaping

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Landscape Australia. The Politics of Public Space


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Landscape Design Credit ACLA


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Concrete Path in Exposed Aggregate Concrete

3 Best Concrete Path Construction Techniques

Concrete Path Construction makes use of one of the world’s most versatile materials.

Concrete is world’s second most consumed product for a reason. Concrete and construction come hand in hand. It is used not only in buildings, irrigation projects, artificial reefs, energy production projects but in pathways too.


Concrete – due to its simplicity – is one of the most used construction product for residential pathways and patios. Concrete pathway can be made with different techniques. They can include large size stones with concrete used as a cementing material to give them a simple yet artistic look. Or, can be as easy as pouring mixed concrete and levelling them. A simple google search about concrete path would result in a plethora of images which we can use for concrete pathways design ideas. Similarly, if you are looking for commercial concreters in a certain place, ‘Commercial Concreters Melbourne’ or ‘Concrete Paths Melbourne’ are the keywords you’d probably want to type on search engines.

3 Best concrete paths and their construction techniques and Features.


Although we are generally talking about concrete path construction for a small section, this can applied to laying concrete path around the house or even a concrete backyard patio. Concrete pathways for residential projects usually don’t experience high loads and therefore reinforcement wouldn’t be necessary. This is also a good application for the use of permeable concrete.

Following are the three best types of Concrete Paths based on their simplicity of construction and their aesthetics.

1.   The poured Concrete Path

This type of construction is pretty simple and requires almost zero technicality and could be concrete path DIY project for you and family. A mix for concrete path can be obtained ready made from market or can be prepared at home.

pouring a concrete path

Pouring a Concrete path from a mixer

Generally, a mix of 1:1.5:2.5 @ 0.5 water-to-cement ratio – this translates to 1 part of Cement, 1.5 parts of Sand and 2.5 parts of aggregate with water half the amount of cement – works fine and gives more or less a strength of 20 MPa ( M20 Grade/ 3000 psi).  Concrete path thickness is usually from 75 mm to 100 mm (3 in to 4 in).

Pouring a concrete path

Pouring a concrete path into the prepared formwork.


In case one wants to get a readymade concrete path mix from market, it can be selected based on Concrete Grades/ Strengths that are usually mentioned on the bag along with the amount of water to be used.


Commercial Concreting is also a viable option which is easily available through commercial landscaping companies. In this case, one just has to mention the desired Concrete Grade/ Strength and the usage of concrete – such as concrete for path construction – and leave the rest on the company. They have all the equipment and technology used for concrete.

Concrete Path Construction steps

  1. Scrape off the loose soil
  2. Compact the layer of soil using a Plate Compacter or using other means.
  3. Lay a layer of aggregate/ crushed stones – around 20 mm in size.
  4. Pour the Concrete
  5. Screed the Surface
  6. Provide the expansion joints*.
  7. Let it harden. Concrete hardens by chemical reaction known as curing and not simply by drying out.

*Concrete tends to expand during hot days. Allowing it to expand freely by providing joints at suitable intervals would allow it to avoid concrete cracks.

Screeding the surface of the concrete

Screeding the surface of the concrete



2.   Concrete Mould Pathways

Concrete Mould pathways, although a little demanding as compared to concrete poured pathways, are aesthetically the most pleasing ones. Concrete Blocks are easily available from different companies online. Or, concrete path mould can also be purchased after which it is as easy as pouring concrete and levelling the surface.

Concrete path cost does increase by a little amount in case you’d want to spend extra for the moulds, but the results justify the extra cost. A similar effect can be created by concrete stencilling, which will create a much more durable path.


DIY Construction of the concrete path

  1. Scrape off the loose soil
  2. Compact the layer of soil using a Plate Compacter or using other means.
  3. Lay a layer of aggregate/ crushed stones – around 20 mm in size.
  4. Place the mold
  5. Pour the Concrete
  6. Screed the Surface
  7. Remove the mold and place it nearby for the neighboring patch
  8. Let it harden

3.   Exposed Aggregate Concrete Path

Exposed Aggregate Concrete Path or simply called Aggregate Concrete Path is very similar to the Poured Concrete Path only with the difference of mix ratio and aggregate used. The mix ratio is designed in a manner that the aggregate is exposed to the surface. The texture is an important consideration here. The exposed aggregate renders a rough finish which increases the friction and is much easier to walk on. This makes it an ideal surface for commercial concreting or for landscaping around swimming pools.



This friction reduces the chances of people slipping while walking or moving things with wheels specially when the surface is wet This is a very practical consideration in Melbourne commercial concreting.

Since the aggregate is exposed here, it is not recommended to use crushed stones. Natural Stones of different colours with decorative uses are preferred in this type of construction which can increase the cost.

Another method of making exposed aggregate is simply mixing the conventional concrete, pouring it then seeding the decorative natural stones on top of the surface. This reduces the cost of the pathway and is much simpler and therefore easier for DIY path construction.


DIY Exposed Aggregate Concrete Path Construction

  1. Scrape off the loose soil
  2. Compact the layer of soil using a Plate Compacter or using other means.
  3. Lay a layer of aggregate/ crushed stones – around 20 mm in size.
  4. Pour the Concrete
  5. Screed the Surface
  6. Seed the decorative stones
  7. Provide the joints
  8. Let it harden



Commercial Landscaping of Public Spaces

In Commercial concreting steel reinforcement and high quality concrete is always used. The steel reinforcement minimises the risk of micro-cracks appearing and increases the path’s strength. To achieve this the steel reinforcement must be in the top 1/3 of the concrete. The reinforcement is held in position be plastic saddles during the concrete pour.

If there is any possibility of vehicular traffic on your path, then it needs to be designed and built to the standards of a driveway. If you have any doubts, consider using a commercial concreting contractor for the important parts of the concrete path construction.



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Exposed Aggregate


© 2020 Reds Landscaping and Civil quality commercial landscaping Melbourne


References and Further Reading on Concrete Path Construction.

Handy Man


Exposed Aggregate Concrete


Home Guides Backyard Projects






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In-situ concrete retaining wall with native grasses at Balwyn Community Centre

3 Best Types of Concrete Retaining Wall

A Concrete Retaining wall can be described as a structure that retains the lateral pressure – usually formed due to soil. In simple terms, it is nothing but a wall that holds the soil on one side of it so the desired changes of the ground level elevation can be achieved. A difference of Elevation levels can be seen on the either side of the retaining wall in the illustration.  A basement wall, for instance, is a retaining wall.

Concrete retaining wall terminology.

Concrete retaining wall terminology.

Retaining Walls

Retaining walls can be made up of materials like stone masonry, timber, steel etc. However, the most common material is concrete for retaining walls construction owing to its durability, adaptability and availability. It can be moulded in to any shape and size, can be ordered from concrete plants or made on the site – also called insitu concrete retaining walls.


commercial retaining wall contractors stripping the formwork off the commercial retaining walls.

Commercial retaining wall contractors stripping the formwork off the walls.

Concrete Retaining Walls

Concrete retaining walls can be of different types based on their working methods and type of construction. These include, but are not limited to, Gravity Wall, Cantilever wall, Piling Wall and Anchored Wall. On a smaller scale of retaining walls, which is where smaller lateral loads are applied, block retaining wall and sleeper retaining wall – made of concrete retaining wall blocks and concrete retaining wall sleepers respectively – are also common.

Gravity Retaining Wall

A gravity retaining wall uses its self-weight to counter the lateral loads coming from soil. For this reason, the gravity walls are usually big and therefore heavier as compared to other retaining walls. It can be used for retaining walls as high as 3 metres.


Gravity Retaining Wall

Gravity Retaining Wall with design guidlines.



Construction is pretty simple and can be done with plain concrete only. A proper drainage system should be provided to avoid the lateral pressure caused due to the water in soil.

Commercial Concreting

Although Concrete can be prepared on-site it is better to use the services of Commercial Concreting companies. The concrete provided is designed in a proper manner keeping the right amount of water, cement, fine and coarse aggregate along with any additives, if needed. They provide concrete based on Concrete’s compressive strength which is usually difficult to know when concrete is prepared on-site, unless very strict precautions are taken and a sample has already been checked in the lab.

Generally, the use of Commercial Concreting makes the construction of concrete structures much easier and more reliable.

Cantilever Retaining Wall

A cantilever retaining wall, as the name suggests, is based on cantilever technique where a slab is put underground to support the stem (see illustration).

cantilever retaining wall

The cantilever design of retaining wall enables the use of a thinner wall stem. The wall usually uses in-situ reinforced concrete with a toe section and a heel section running under the earth fill. The instillation of the steel reinforcement is critical for this type of wall.


Since the cantilever retaining wall is of a smaller section as compared to gravity walls, reinforcement is provided in normal conditions. Alternatively, Pre-cast concrete and Pre-stressed concrete can also be used for the construction. It can used for retaining walls up to 10 meters of height.

Construction, however, is not as simple as compared to gravity retaining walls. And, a suitable drainage system is provided to avoid to extra lateral pressure that would be caused due to the water available in soil.

Piled Retaining Wall

Piled retaining wall is nothing but reinforced concrete piles driven next to each other in the ground up to a certain depth that is enough to counter the lateral earth pressure. A gravel fill is usually provided for the drainage of water.

piled concrete retaining wall

Construction site on the edge of a river to protect riverbank collapse with concrete pile foundation and concrete pipeline for water flow.
Retaining wall construction.



Sheet pile retaining walls are also used in a similar manner. These kind of piles can be used for the retaining walls which are up to 6 meters in height. The construction requires heavy machinery for the drilling or driving of piles in the ground. Construction is complex and therefore requires technical knowledge.

Anchored Retaining Wall

Anchored retaining walls are usually provided where a high retaining wall with a thin cross section is required. Wires or deep cable rods are driven deep sideways and then anchored by pouring concrete on to them. These tiebacks or anchors act against the sliding and over-turning of the retaining wall.

Similar to other methods, a drainage system is provided to avoid excess lateral pressure caused due to the water.


anchored concrete retaining wall

An anchored concrete retaining wall.


Gravity Retaining walls, Cantilever Retaining Wall and other described above are the kinds of retaining walls that are supposed to take high lateral loads. These kind of walls usually require an engineer and a technical team to design the retaining walls which would stand against sliding and over-turning failures.

Small retaining walls, usually up to 1.2 meters (4 feet), can be constructed and used on a private property with little expertise. All you’ll need is time and materials to construct these retaining walls. Such small retaining walls are constructed to hold back the garden soil and for other smaller lateral loads.

Concrete Block Retaining walls and Concrete Sleeper Retaining walls are possibly the best choices for such tasks.

Concrete Block Retaining Wall

A concrete block retaining wall is nothing but a set of concrete blocks stacked on top of each other. But, in order to make it a retaining wall that lasts for years and can take loads in a safe manner, some construction techniques should be utilized.

Block wall

A Concrete Block Retaining wall under construction.


In situ concrete stairs and block walls.

In situ concrete stairs and block retaining walls.

Concrete Block Retaining Wall Construction

First of all, a trench of certain height should be dug and compacted. A layer of crushed stone base, 15 mm 20 mm stones in size, should be provided. This requires less compaction and is good for the drainage.

Concrete blocks, or hollow concrete blocks, are then stacked in the form of a masonry so that all the joints should not come in the same vertical line. This would allow the retaining walls to resist vertical loads as well.

Depending on the concrete blocks you are using, the can come up with butt joints or locking flange to avoid sliding of one block over the other.

The same stones that we used for the stone base can be provided on the back of retaining wall for the drainage of water to avoid extra water pressure.



Concrete Sleeper Retaining Wall

Concrete Sleeper Retaining wall is very similar to concrete block retaining wall. In this retaining wall, concrete sleepers are used instead of concrete blocks. A number of companies provide factory-made sleepers and vertical posts.

Sleeper Wall

An example of a concrete Sleeper Retaining Wall. – Photo Credit – Bunnings.


Concrete Sleeper Retaining Wall Construction

Site should be cleared and levelled. Measurements should be made and auger holes should be dug for a depth of around 1.4 meters for a retaining wall of 1 meter height. A deeper hole would be required in case the retaining wall is higher than 1 meter. The posts should then be concreted into the ground so they are secure. A Concrete of around 20MPa strength would do the job.

Once the concrete is hardened and posts are in their proper place, sleepers should be paced. Seal the back of sleepers with a plastic sheet or with a concrete layer. A perforated drainage pipe should be provided to run along the length of wall. A drainage material such as crushed stone of around 20 mm in size should be provided over the pipe.



After the placement of sleepers, one should wait for around 7 days for the concrete to gain strength after which it is okay to pour the backfill material.




Three Best Types of Concrete Retaining Walls

Since there are different uses for each Concrete Retaining Wall mentioned in this text, it is difficult to choose the best three types. However, if we grade them based on their simplicity of construction, we can list three.

  1. Concrete Block Retaining Wall
  2. Concrete Sleeper Retaining Wall
  3. Concrete Gravity Retaining Wall

Afore-mentioned retaining walls offer simple construction methods and can be constructed without any technical assistance, if their usage is limited to private properties and shorter heights of around 1.2 metres.

Concrete Retaining Walls in Commercial Landscaping

In commercial landscaping there is a need to be able to produce a large quantity of strong retaining walls economically as well as maintaining the required aesthetic qualities. To achieve this In-situ Concrete walls are a good choice for their low maintenance and cost effective installation costs. Concrete block retaining walls are also widely used in commercial landscaping.


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Concrete – 9 things you need to know for better concreting.


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7 things you need to know about exposed aggregate concrete paths


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© 2020 Reds Landscaping and Civil quality commercial landscaping Melbourne


References and Further Reading


About Civil


The Constructor


The Family Handymanre


Lowes – How to Build


Installation Guide


Trojan Sleeper Installation


Commercial Concrete


The Constructor


Icon Walls


The Bunnings Range.


Concrete Sleepers






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Permeable Concrete -

7 Great Reasons to choose Permeable Concrete

Permeable Concrete or pervious concrete is changing the way public spaces are landscaped.

Concrete is the second most consumed product in the world. And contrary to our belief, its usage is much wider than constructing buildings only. With recent developments in Concrete, it has become an important material for an array of usages. Permeable Concrete is a prime example of development in concrete industry. Although the material itself isn’t new, since it was first used in 1852, it has been attracting renewed attention.

What is Permeable Concrete?

Permeable Concrete is also known as Porous Concrete, Pervious Concrete, Gap Graded Concrete, No-Fines Concrete and Enhanced-Porosity Concrete. Permeable concrete, similar to Normal Concrete, uses a mix of Cement, Water and Coarse Aggregate with little or no sand (Fine Aggregate) in it. The resulting concrete has 15% to 25% voids which ensure a water flow rate of 480 in/hr or more. Although the higher porosity, and lack of mortar paste reduces the strength of pervious concrete as compared to the conventional one but it is sufficient for most of its uses.


What are the Applications of Permeable Concrete

Although Pavement Construction is the major application of Pervious Concrete since it reduces the stormwater runoff and adds to the surface water table. In fact, the usage of Permeable Concrete in Pavement Construction is considered as one of the Best Management Practices (BMP) by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA). The usage of Permeable Concrete in pavements and in other horizontal constructions, depending on the precipitation values of a certain region, can eliminate the need of retention ponds and other precipitation runoff storage facilities. This would result in a more efficient land use especially in urban areas where land is already expensive.


Figure 1 Pervious Concrete Pavement (Divya Bhavana et al., 2017)


Below are some of the many applications in modern landscaping;

  • Residential Roads and Driveways
  • Parking Lots
  • Pavements with low traffic volume
  • Tennis Courts
  • Sub-base for conventional concrete pavements
  • Artificial Reefs
  • Well Linings
  • Slope Stabilisation
  • Swimming Pool Decks
  • Pavement Edge Drains

Production of Pervious Concrete

Production of Permeable Concrete is very similar to Normal Concrete since it uses the same ingredients. However, the amount of ingredients differ. Pervious Concrete is also mix designed and therefore should be designed for the desired purpose.
A general guideline is enlisted in the table.
Table 1 Typical Mix Proportion for Pervious Concrete (Divya Bhavana et al., 2017)


Material Quantity (kg/cubic metre)
Cement 270 to 415
Aggregate (Coarse and Fine) 1190 to 1480
Water to Cement Ratio (by mass) 0.27 to 0.34
Aggregate to Cement Ratio (by mass) 4 to 4.5
Fine to Coarse Aggregate Ratio (by mass) 0 to 1


This typical guideline is for information only and therefore a trial mix should always be prepared and checked for the desired purpose. Apart from the usual materials, Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM) and chemical admixtures are also used as per their dosage mentioned by the manufactures.

Water to Cement Ratio

A lower water to cement ratio is used since higher water to cement ratios would affect the compressive strength of concrete. If desired for a purpose where compressive strength is of no importance, a higher water to cement ratio can be used.
Usage of Fine Aggregate would reduce the permeability of concrete and make it less porous, however the compressive strength would be improved.
Lightweight aggregate, recycled aggregate and other types of aggregate or other techniques like fly ash geopolymer concrete have also been utilized to make Permeable Concrete.

Characteristics of the Concrete

Although it is similar to Normal Concrete in terms of its ingredients, it has a plethora of characteristics that make this concrete different. Enlisted are some characteristics of Hardened and Green (Fresh) Permeable Concrete.
The Permeable Concrete has a textured surface after placement.
In-place densities are usually 1600 kg/m^3 to 2000 kg/m^3
Due to low or no mortar content, Permeable Concrete renders a lower slump value and a stiffer consistency. Slump values are usually less than 20 mm (0.75 inches).
In spite of higher void percentage the Permeable Concrete can render a compressive strength of 3.5 MPa to 28 MPa (500 psi to 4000 psi). Typical values are about 17 MPa (2500 psi).
No Darby, Trowel or Bullfloat is used since they tend to seal the surface of concrete.

Permeable Concrete -

I.Idro Drain – Heidelberg cement (Photo – Italcementi a division of Heidelberg cement.)


7 Benefits of using Pervious Concrete in Commercial Landscaping.

Permeable Concrete is much more than a way to reduce the stormwater runoff in urban areas. Listed below are some benefits of using Permeable Concrete.
It reduces the pollution by allowing the water to percolate in the ground. The sand chemistry and biology are allowed to treat the water naturally.
Allowing the rainfall to percolate, it recharges ground water and aquifers.
It improves the land use especially in Urban Areas
The light colour of Concrete and relatively open pore structure absorb and store less heat respectively when compared to Normal Concrete. This helps in lowering heat in urban areas.
It is difficult for trees planted in parking lots and sidewalks to grow in impervious concrete environments since it makes it difficult for water to reach the roots. Trees benefit from Permeable concrete and further reduce the heat in urban areas.
It eliminates the risk of ponding over the roads over a longer periods of time as observed in some developing countries after rainfall.
The pervious concrete can absorb the noise of the vehicles on the road creating a pleasant environment.
In rainy days, pervious concrete pavements do not have splashes which glisten at night and are dangerous for drivers.
As per recent researches, the permeable concrete can also be used for the purification of sea water.

Permeable Concrete as a Filter

According to the USA EPA, permeable pavements can help filter out pollutants that contribute to water pollution. The porous structure of pervious pavement allows stormwater to percolate into the underlying soil while filtering out harmful sediments, resulting in better stormwater quality. Studies have shown that as well as preventing larger plastic pollution being washed into the stormwater, permeable concrete can reduce pollution from microplastics and microrubber.

Permeable Concrete Filter

Permeable Concrete as a filter for plastics and microplastics.

Related Landscaping Ideas from Red’s Landscaping and Civil Melbourne

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© 2020 Reds Landscaping and Civil quality commercial landscaping Melbourne


References and Further Reading

Draining Concrete Bike Path


Draining Outdoor Flooring


Paver reduce Pollutioni


Architecture and Design


Divya Bhavana, T., Koushik, S., Uday Mani Kumar, K., & Srinath, R. (2017). Pervious concrete pavement. In International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (Vol. 8, Issue 4).
Park, S. B., Lee, B., Lee, J., & Jang, Y. Il. (2010). A study on the seawater purification characteristics of water-permeable concrete using recycled aggregate. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 54(10), 658–665.
Yang, J., & Jiang, G. (2003). Experimental study on properties of pervious concrete pavement materials. Cement and Concrete Research, 33(3), 381–386.

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Exposed aggregate Concrete Pathway

9 Concrete facts for Melbourne Landscapers.

Concrete is without a doubt it is one of the most versatile used materials in landscape construction. In fact, concrete is the second most widely used substance on the planet after water. From in situ concrete walls to pavers to fence posts it has a enormous range of uses. What are the different types of concrete and its uses?  To properly decide on which mix to use, it is important to understand what it is and what factors affect its physical properties.


commercial concreting melbourne

Commercial Concreting Melbourne. Reds Landscaping Melbourne using a boom pump to pour architectural concrete walls

What is Concrete?

In technical terms, it is a structural material consisting of a hard, chemically inert particulate substance, known as aggregate that is bonded together by cement and water. It is a composite material as it consists of both a binder and a filler.

What is difference between concrete and cement?

The binder most commonly used is known as Portland Cement. This is a mixture of finely ground limestone (CaCO3) and shale or clay which has been combined together at around 1500℃. In this process, water and carbon dioxide are removed from the mixture (calcination), then calcium silicates are formed. A small amount of gypsum (CaSO4•2(H2O)) is added to regulate the setting.

Concrete with exposed aggregate.

The aggregate, that is the part of the mix made up of several smaller ingredients, will generally be the sand and gravel. The gravel itself will usually be hard stones of a certain size range. Fine aggregates are below about 10mm in size and are often used in small bags of cement mix or for smaller landscaping work. Larger stone aggregates range from 10 to 40mm in size and are commonly used in construction. It is the stone aggregates that give the mix its compressive strength. As the aggregate is around 70% of the mix, it provides much of the bulk and contributes to its dimensional stability. The rougher the surface of the aggregate and the greater the area in contact with the cement paste, the stronger a concrete will be.

River pebbles will not give your concrete the maximum compressive strength, but they do look great in exposed aggregate concrete.

Rounded particles like river pebbles or beach sand will result in lower strength than crushed aggregates. Larger size aggregates lead to relatively lower strength. Where extra strong mix is needed, a little less aggregate can be used.


Course aggregate.


A key ingredient is of course the water. When the water is combined with the cement as paste is formed which binds the aggregate together. Concrete does not harden by drying out, it hardens by a chemical reaction know as hydration. In this reaction, compounds in the cement react with water molecules to form strong chemical bonds. Ideally, the water should be as pure as possible to prevent the occurrence of any side reactions which may weaken or interfere with the chemical reaction taking place. Even small quantities of organic soil compounds result in chemical reactions that seriously affect the strength. In Melbourne access to good quality water is not usually a problem.



Concrete Mixer

Loading the Concrete Mixer the correct materials in the correct ratios is essential for making strong concrete. The water needs to be as pure as possible.

The other important point for the landscaper is to get the ratio of water to cement correct. The ratio of water to cement is critical if strong concrete is required. If too much water is added, the strength of the mix will be reduced. Excess water above what is required for the chemical reaction will result in pores on the concrete which will reduce the strength especially the tensile strength. Too little will make the it difficult to work, to fill spaces, or create a good connection to the reinforcement. Accurate measurements and thorough mixing of the cement and water will help prevent these problems.

What is it called when concrete hardens?

Concrete sets with a chemical reaction not by drying.


It is set by a chemical reaction and not by drying. This means that it will even will set under water. It is important to remember this fact during the curing stage. The two main hydration chemical reactions from the calcium silicates are as follows;
Tricalcium silicate + Water—>Calcium silicate hydrate+Calcium hydroxide + heat
2 Ca3SiO5 + 7 H2O —> 3 CaO.2SiO2.4H2O + 3 Ca(OH)2 + 173.6kJ
Dicalcium silicate + Water—>Calcium silicate hydrate + Calcium hydroxide + heat
2 Ca2SiO4 + 5 H2O—> 3 CaO.2SiO2.4H2O + Ca(OH)2 + 58.6 kJ

Exothermic reactions

Both of these reactions are exothermic, that is, they release heat. This heat will dissipate quickly in thin sections. In thicker sections, the internal temperature is transferred to the outside much more slowly. As the outer surface of the concrete will cool much more rapidly than the inner core, there can be a difference in reaction speed. This can lead to tensile stresses that can crack the surface as a result of this uncontrolled temperature difference across the cross section. For this reason, concrete should not be poured in very cold temperatures. In cases where thermal cracking does occur, it will be at early ages of curing. The heat can also cause moisture to evaporate from the surface of the concrete, making it weaker. This will be the case if there is insufficient water for the chemical reaction. For these reason excessively thick sections should be avoided in a single pour. Wooden formwork and damp hessian covers can help the curing process. Giving your concrete a very light spray of water as it is curing will often improve the strength.


What is the correct mix for concrete?

When mixing concrete for footings or foundations use a mix of 3 parts coarse or sharp sand and 3 parts aggregate with 1 part of a high quality cement.

History of concrete

What have the Romans ever done for us? The Romans are widely credited for the spread of building technologies including concrete throughout Europe. It was the Roman’ Empires’s engineering abilities that enabled them to built an enormous empire throughout Europe and through parts of North Africa and the Middle East. The concrete architecture of the Romans is famous amongst fans of history.

Durable Roman Concrete has lasted centuries.

The Roman  formula for quality concrete

It was know to the Romans as “opus caementicium”. Opus meaning a fortification, composition or a piece of work and caementicium meaning quarried or unhewn stone. The Romans developed their recipe in the third century BC. The ingredient the Romans used was volcanic dust known as pozzolana. This volcanic dust included fine particles of alumina and silica which created the chemical reaction enabling the setting. To this they added a mixture of lime or gypsum, brick or rock pieces and water. Usually the mix was a ratio of 1 part of lime for 3 parts of volcanic ash.

Concrete Pantheon Rome

The Pantheon in Rome was constructed entirely in concrete.



Concrete Dome of the Pantheon in Rome.

Concrete Dome of the Pantheon in Rome.

Roman Waterproof Concrete

Roman builders discovered that adding crushed terracotta to the mortar created a waterproof material which could be then be used with cisterns and other constructions exposed to rain or water. Recently, it has been found that the Roman mix used in seawall construction has better endurance to seawater than the modern stuff. This was mostly due to one of the minerals of the volcanic rock phillipsite, reacting with the seawater to form aluminous tobermorite which reinforced the concrete over time. After the fall of the Roman empire the technology for making concrete was lost for many years.


Assyrians Babylonians and Egyptians.

Among the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians, clay was often used as the bonding material. The Egyptians developed a substance more closely resembling modern concrete by using lime and gypsum as binders. Lime (calcium oxide), was derived from limestone, chalk, or (where available) oyster shells. (Pozzolans are actually a broad class of siliceous or siliceous and aluminous materials.)

Portland cement

In 1824 an English inventor, Joseph Aspdin, burned and ground together a mixture of limestone and clay. As the chemistry of concrete was not fully understood at the time, the proportions of the ingredients were developed by trial and error. This mixture, called Portland cement, has remained the dominant cementing agent used in concrete production. It is named Portland cement as it is an attempt to imitate the limestone from Portland in Dorset on the jurassic coast of England. Portland Limestone formed slowly over the last 150 million years or so as tiny grains of sediments and clays infused the limestone grew and compacted. This gives it both its unique physical properties when grown up for cement, but also its attractive appearance. Portland Limestone has been used in many of the iconic London buildings such as Saint Paul’s Cathedral and the palace of Westminster. As a building material Portland Limestone was popularised by architect Sir Christopher Wren.

Reinforced Concrete.

One of the drawbacks of concrete, despite its great compressive strength, is its lack of tensile strength. This is largely due to its natural porosity. Plain unreinforced concrete does not easily withstand stresses such as wind action, earthquakes, and vibrations and other bending forces and is therefore unsuitable in many structural applications. Low tensile strength also means low strength in bending or when used as a beam.

The Strength of Steel

Steel when compared with concrete has great tensile strength. The solution is to embed the steel into the concrete. This is usually achieved with the use of steel mesh reinforcement. The reinforcing steel, normally takes the form of rods, bars, or mesh. The reinforcement bars are often coined along the surface to give them a good connection to the concrete. The addition of tightly bound reinforcement bars makes the concrete section into a true composite beam. For this reason, the reinforcements must have good overlap.

commercial concreting melbourne. Concrete retaining wall footings.

Commercial Concreting Melbourne. Concrete retaining wall footings with steel reinforcement.



Joseph Monier

Reinforced concrete is usually attributed to Joseph Monier, a Parisian gardener who made garden pots and tubs of concrete reinforced with iron mesh.This was patented in 1867. In reinforced concrete, the tensile strength of steel and the compressional strength of concrete render a member capable of sustaining heavy stresses of all kinds over considerable spans. Despite the strength of reinforced concrete, efforts should be make to minimise the loads on garden retains walls. This can be achieved by adequate agricultural drainage near the wall. It is important to remember that a cubic metre of water weighs a tonne. Plant selection near the retaining wall is also important plants should be chosen that do not have an invasive root system. For your existing trees, consider the use of a tree root barrier.

Common Problems with Concrete

Concrete Cancer

If the steel reinforcement inside the concrete becomes exposed to water and air, weak carbonic acid can form. This can cause the steel reinforcement to form iron oxide or rust. The Iron oxide, Fe2O3, has a higher volume than the original steel. The expansion of the reinforcement can cause the concrete to crack leading to even more water ingress and rust.

Concrete cancer Elwood Victoria

Pre-cast concrete wheel stop buffers Elwood Victoria. As the steel reinforcement rusts it expands allowing more water in. Melbourne bayside suburbs like Elwood are particularly susceptible.


When designing or constructing concrete structures, the reinforcement bars need to be located away from anywhere water can accumulate. This includes the counter bores for fasteners. In Melbourne bayside suburbs like Elwood, salt water can accumulate in counterbores and seep through to the reinforcement via the concretes natural porosity, or through microcracks.


concrete cancer in a precast buffer

Concrete cancer in a precast car park buffer. Reinforced concrete should be designed and constructed so that the steel reinforcement is not too close to areas where water can accumulate.


Commercial landscaped gardens , or pebble ballast roofs, on flat concrete are particularly susceptible to cancer. For these reasons, it is essential that the roof is properly waterproofed and rooftop garden beds have adequate drainage.


Concrete cancer in a footpath crossover.

Concrete cancer is a likely cause of this failure in a pedestrian crossover. Note how close the steel reinforcement has been placed to the top surface allowing pooled water to seep through to the steel reinforcement.. An early indicator of this failure are the grid pattern of cracks in the concrete surface.


Understanding the nature of the materials used in residential or commercial landscaping is key to creating a quality Melbourne landscaping solution that can be enjoyed for years to come.

Related Landscaping information from Red’s Landscaping and Civil

Concreting Melbourne


Retaining Walls




Exposed Aggregate


© 2020 Reds Landscaping and Civil quality commercial landscaping Melbourne


For more information on hardscaping


How to minimise thermal cracking


How it is made and the scientific principles.


The Pantheon in Rome


Cement Australia


The second most widely used substance on the planet.


Boral Australia


Cancer and how to fix it

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Tennis court repair Balwyn

Balwyn Landscaping – Commercial Project

Balwyn is an inner eastern suburb of Melbourne and lies in the northern part of the city of Boroondara. It was in this area that grazier John Gardiner settled near the point where Gardiners creek meets the Yarra River. The commercial editor of the Argus, Andrew Murray built house named Balwyn which gives the area its name.


How far is Balwyn from the Melbourne CBD?

Balwyn is only 10 kilometres from the Melbourne CBD and in an easterly direction. It was once serviced by the outer loop railway station at Deepdene.


Balwyn Community Centre

The Balwyn Community Centre at 412 Whitehorse Road Surrey Hills was upgraded to ensure it would continue to support the needs of the local Balwyn Community. As well as the upgrades to the buildings, there were landscaping works for the parkland, natural wetlands,  exposed aggregate concrete pathways and tennis courts. For this project we were able to showcase all of our commercial landscaping services.


Landscaping Balwyn Community Centre. The Scope of works.


The hard landscaping for the Community Centre

The scope of work for this project included the following hard landscaping construction;

  • Plain, coloured and exposed aggregate concrete,
  • In-situ or poured in place concrete garden retaining walls,
  • Exposed aggregate concrete driveway crossovers,
  • Concrete upstands, edges, ramps stairs and landings.


The soft landscaping for Balwyn Community Centre

The scope of work for this project included the following soft landscaping installation;


  • The planting of advanced indigenous trees
  • The application of appropriate fertilizers
  • Lawn areas
  • The planting of native grasses and ornamental plants
  • Aggregate and Gravel
  • Imported top soil to Australian Standards
  • A sophisticated Irrigation System
  • Areas of mass planting
  • Mulched garden beds
  • Planting of Australian Native Shrubs
  • Garden edging.

Existing trees at the Balwyn Community Centre

The existing tress on the site included the following;

  • Pin Oak (Quercus palustris),
  • River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) ,
  • Narrow leaved black Peppermint (Eucalyptus nicholii),
  • Lemon scented gum (Corymbia citriodora),
  • Prickly leaved Paperbark ( Melaleuca styphelioides)
  • Forest Oak (Allocasuarina torulosa),
  • Drooping She-oak (Allocasuarina verticilata)
  • Smooth Barked Apple ( Angophora Costata)

Nearly all of these existing trees were kept in the new landscape design.


Native Urban Wetlands

Later in the project rehabilitation of native wetlands was added including a child proof fence.


Tennis Court Repairs and reconstruction

Part of the landscaping included repairs to a tennis court and the construction of another tennis court. A good sport surface must be stable, therefore the new tennis court was constructed with asphalt over 300 mm of roadbase.

Synthetic clay Tennis Court surface


A low maintenance synthetic clay tennis court surface was required to laid over the asphalt. Therefore, the surface chosen was Grassports Policlay. In addition to being low maintenance, Grassports Policlay is a fast draining low maintenance water free tennis surface resulting in the ideal surface for public tennis courts.

A high quality sporting surface was required, therefore the asphalt layers were flattened rigorously in preparation. The very thick roadbase foundation will also help to maintain the stability of the playing surface. Root barriers we also installed to prevent invasive tree roots causing any unevenness to the playing surface.


Soft play surfaces

The soft play coloured surfaces in the landscape was required, so an EPDM wetpour rubber was chosen. In addition to its great colour range, EPDM is a synthetic rubber widely used in the automotive industry. Similarly, its mechanical properties make it ideal for this application. For instance, it has great UV stability, abrasion resistance, ozone resistance and it is water proof. So, the material used was Playkote which was installed as a rubber wet pour over SBR underlay. In addition to the added height, the SBR underlay makes the play surface a little softer. The colourful kids scooter track in Teal, Lime Green and Light Blue Laykold was constructed by Grand Slam Surfaces.



Balwyn Outdoor Gym Equipment


Balwyn Landscaping. Outdoor Gym Equipment ant Balwyn Community Centre

Balwyn Landscaping. Outdoor Gym Equipment ant Balwyn Community Centre


Environmentally Friendly Garden Furniture

Garden furniture including picnic tables, benches and seats were installed to add to the public amenity. In addition to the the amenity and aesthetic provided, recycled materials were also used. To this end, the material used was Enviroslat.  Enviroslat is an environmentally friendly low maintenance material produced from HDPE waste mixed with recycled cellulose. The recycled cellulose hardwood waste and rice husks.


Outdoor Furniture on Exposed aggregate concrete. Commercial Landscaping at Balwyn Community Centre

Outdoor Furniture on Exposed aggregate concrete. ACLA Consultants landscape architects.



Table Tennis Table

Outdoor Table Tennis Table with bespoke surface treatment. Commercial Landscaping Balwyn Community Centre.

Outdoor Table Tennis Table with bespoke surface treatment.



The finished Balwyn Commercial landscaping Project


About the Balwyn Community Centre  Commercial Landscaping Project


Landscape Architects: ACLA Consultants landscape architects.


Building Construction: CICG


Customer: City of Boroondara


Hume Global Learning Centre – Sunbury


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Landscaping Balwyn Community Center




© 2020 Reds Landscaping and Civil – Quality landscaping Melbourne

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